TEXT: BIOLOGY AND YOUR HEALTH
A What you eat and drink is directly related to your health. But you may not think twice about the possibility of contaminated food or water, or a lack of vitamins in your diet. Not long ago, diseases caused by vitamin deficiencies were still fairly common. The first vitamins were identified less than 100 years ago, but today the vitamins found in foods are printed on labels.
B Even today we still face food-related causes of illness. For example, you might hear about an outbreak of food poisoning, and mad cow disease was only recognized in the late 1980’s. Of perhaps greater concern to you are food allergies. Many people suffer from severe, even life threatening, allergies to foods such as peanuts and shellfish. Beyond questions about the sources of food are questions and concerns about what people eat and how much they eat. For example, scientists estimate that more than 60 percent of adults in the United States are overweight or obese. The health consequences of obesity include increased risks of diabetes, stroke, heart disease, breast cancer, colon cancer and other health problems. Biology can help you to better understand all of these health-related issues.
C An understanding of biology on many different levels –genetic, chemical, and cellular, for example — can help you make any number of lifestyle choices that affect your health. Why is it important to use sunscreen? What are the benefits of exercise? What are the effects of using alcohol, illegal drugs and tobacco? Cigarette smoke does not just affect the lungs; it can also change a person’s body chemistry and have strong negative effects on the kidneys. Non smokers normally have a normal enzyme level, while smokers have lower enzyme levels. Lower levels of monoamine oxidase in the brain can affect mood, and lower levels in the liver could contribute to high blood pressure.
Biology and the World Around You
D In 1995, some middle school students from Minnesota were walking through a wetland and collecting frogs for a school project. The students stopped to look at the frogs and what they saw shocked them. Many of the frogs had deformities, including missing legs, extra legs, and missing eyes. What caused the deformities? Scientists investigated that question by testing several hypotheses. They studied whether the deformities could have been caused by factors such as a chemical in the water, ultraviolet radiation, or some other type of infection.
E Why would frog deformities such as that provoke such scientific interest? The frogs are a part of an ecosystem, so whatever affected them could affect other species in the area. If the deformities were caused by a chemical in the water, might the chemical pose a risk to people living in the area? In other regions of the United States parasites caused similar deformities in frogs. Might that parasite also be present in Minnesota? If so, did it pose a risk to other species?
F At first, parasites were not found in the frogs. However, scientists now suggest that the frog deformities were due to a combination of infection by parasites, called trematodes, and predation by dragonfly nymphs. Science has answered some questions about the cause of the leg deformities. However, scientists now think that a chemical may be connected to the increased number of parasite infections.
G Suppose that the chemical comes from a factory in the area. Is it reasonable to ban the chemical? Should the factory be closed or fined? In any instance like this, political, legal, economic, and biological concerns have to be considered. What is the economic impact on the factory on the area? Is there any evidence of human health problems in the area? Is there a different chemical that could be used? Without an understanding of biology, how could you make an informed decision related to any of these questions?
H These are the types of questions that people try to answer every day. Biologists and other scientists research environmental issues such as pollution, biodiversity, habitat preservation, land conservation, and natural resource use, but decisions about the future are not in the hands of scientists. It is up to everyone to make decisions based on evidence and conclusions from many different sources.
QUESTIONS 1 – 7
Label the missing words on the diagram below using words from the following paragraph from the text :
An understanding of biology on many different levels –genetic, chemical, and cellularm for example — can help you make any number of lifestyle choices that affect your health. Why is it important to use sunscreen? What are the benefits of exercise? What are the effects of using alcohol, illegal drugs and tobacco? Cigarette smoke does not just affect the lungs; it can also change a person’s body chemistry and have strong negative effects on the kidneys. Non smokers normally have a normal enzyme level, while non smokers have lower enzyme levels. Lower levels of monoamine oxidase in the brain can affect mood, and lower levels in the liver could contribute to high blood pressure.
Write your answers in boxes 1 – 7 on your answer sheet.
QUESTIONS 8 – 12
This passage has eight sections, A-H.
Choose the correct heading for sections B, C, E – G and from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number i-ix in boxes 8-12 on your answer sheet.
8. Section B __________
9. Section C __________
10. Section E __________
11. Section F __________
12. Section G __________
|段落匹配題||將陳述中的信息內容匹配到相應段落。（“Men discovered fire 790000years ago”→”The keys to human growth and development”）
|主題匹配題||將某一段落匹配到相應的主題（paragraphe B→titireⅱ:“The keys to human growth and development”）
一定要注意题目的字数限制（“NO MORE THAN ---WORDS”）。
一定要注意题目的字数限制（“NO MORE THAN ---WORDS”）。
一定要注意题目的字数限制（“NO MORE THAN ---WORDS”，複合詞例如“check-in”算作一個詞）。
- 建議n°1 : 認真閱讀題目要求。每道題的題目要求都有所不同，回答問題時務必要遵守，如果您所答非所問則一定會丟分：例如題目要求“Answer Yes, No or Not Given”，您必須在以上三者中二選一否則答案無效。遇到此類問題首先要到原文中找答案，“Yes”意味著陳述觀點與原文相符，“No” 意味著不符合, “Not Given”意味著原文中沒有相關內容。
- 建議n°2 : 注意時間管理，因為答題時間有限，每道題回答時間不要超過3分鐘，如果遇到困難請立刻跳到下一題不要戀戰。優先完成所有題目，而不是在某道難題上浪費時間。