TOEFL IBT – Research

Vocabulary is promordial in order to improve your TOEFL score. Remember, Preparation is the key to succeed !

This vocabulary will be useful for doing research in school, for expanding your English vocabulary, or especially for any number of English language exams you may take. Here we will look at the most commonly used words related to research, along with their French translations.


a term used in survey research to refer to the match between the target population and the sample

What does it say about the accuracy of the entire survey?

la précision


measuring and comparing the operations and outcomes of organizations, systems, processes, etc.

Benchmarking is another tool used by the consulting corps to gauge productivity.

l’analyse comparative

case study

the collection and presentation of detailed information about a participant or small group

A neurologist uses case studies to illuminate the workings of the brain.

l’étude de cas


make reference to

He declined to make any detailed comment, citing the investigations.



get or gather together

In it he compiled the statistics for the first three years.


control group

the group in an experimental design that receives either no treatment or a different treatment from the experimental group

A control group consisting of fertile men was given the same regimen.

le groupe témoin


factual information used as a basis for reasoning discussion, or calculation

Other data released Thursday gave a mixed picture of the economy.

les données

dependent variable

a variable that varies due to the impact of the independent variable

The dependent variable must be examined at the lowest level of analysis.

la variable dépendante

empirical research

the process of developing systematized knowledge gained from observations that are formulated to support insights and generalizations about the phenomena being researched

Empirical research, including experiments and validated measurement tools, guides the scientific method.

la recherche empirique


estimate the nature, quality, ability, or significance of

You really have to evaluate and sort those things out.


focus groups

small, roundtable discussion groups charged with examining specific topics or problems, including possible options or solutions

Unlike a survey, focus groups do not provide statistical information.

les groupes de discussion

independent variable

the conditions of an experiment that are systematically manipulated by the researcher

If there is more than one independent variable, things become more complicated.

la variable indépendante

margin of error

the permitted or acceptable deviation from the target or a specific value

The survey carried a margin of error of 4 percentage points.

la marge d’erreur


a theory or analysis of how research does and should proceed

His methodology for determining economic soundness is unusual, they say.

la méthodologie


arrange by systematic planning and united effort

You must be very organized and have everything ready to go.



give something useful or necessary to

They were mainly famous for providing much labor and little therapy.



structured sets of questions on specified subjects that are used to gather information, attitudes, or opinions

The Census Bureau began mailing test questionnaires starting in May 1995.

le questionnaire


the degree to which a measure yields consistent results

Reliability is an important aspect of research.

la fiabilité


a seeking for knowledge

The group has conducted research on itself to guard against attacks.

la recherche


the population researched in a particular study

The sample for the poll was 1,204 American adults.



the degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure

That has been very important to assure validity of data submitted.

la validité

Our study sheets in vocabulary:
Start Training For Free