TOEFL IBT – Sustainable Development

Vocabulary is promordial in order to improve your TOEFL score. Remember, Preparation is the key to succeed !

This vocabulary will be useful if you ever take a course about sustainable development, for expanding your English vocabulary, or especially for any number of English language exams you may take. Here we will look at the most commonly used words related to sustainable development, along with their French translations.

biodiversity

diversity among and within plant and animal species in an environment

Biodiversity is a word that still trails its newness behind it.

la biodiversité

consumer

a person or organization that uses a commodity or service

Consumers of Cheerios and other popular General Mills products scarcely noticed.

le consommateur/la consommatrice

deforestation

the clearing of forests or trees

Deforestation, meanwhile, is causing floods which damage irrigation systems.

la déforestation

degradation

the wearing down of the land by the erosive action of water, wind, or ice

The moisture at the site and bacteria caused a further degradation.

la dégradation

deplete

seriously decrease

He sees his resources being depleted each week, each day.

réduire

desertification

the rapid depletion of plant life at desert boundaries and in semi-arid regions

The result is a mounting problem of desertification throughout the region.

la désertification

developing country

a country that is not yet highly industrialized

The developed and developing countries are all in the same boat.

le pays en voie de développement

ecology

the branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment

Pressure to return big profits conflicts with food safety and ecology.

l’écologie

environment

the air, water, minerals, organisms, and all other external factors surrounding and affecting a given organism at any time

It will take more than 8 percent to change the environment.

l’environnement

fossil fuel

any combustible organic material, such as oil, coal, or natural gas, derived from the remains of former life

Solar power has remained too expensive, while fossil fuel prices have declined.

le combustible fossile

grassroots movement

a movement that develops organically at a local level before spreading throughout the state and even the country

It would take a true grassroots movement to bring change.

le mouvement populaire

human rights

fundamental rights, especially those believed to belong to an individual

It is not the only human rights issue he should raise.

les droits de l’homme

impoverished

reduced to poverty

The available housing of the impoverished border cities was quickly overrun.

appauvri

industrialize

to undergo conversion to the methods, aims, and ideals of industry and economic activity

They might not be industrialized, but they might be happy.

inustrialiser

infrastructure

the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization

Tell those critics what you think of the West Virginia infrastructure.

l’infrastructure

natural resources

naturally occurring sources of wealth, such as land or water

We have enormous natural resources in this part of the country.

les ressources naturelles

organic farming

a form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost, and biological pest control

Farmers are discouraged, however, by the novelty of organic farming and by uncertainty.

l’agriculture biologique

pesticide

a chemical substance used to kill insects that harm plants and crops

Pesticides were also used in the Gulf region to control insects.

le pesticide

prosperity

a successful, flourishing, or thriving condition

Promoting prosperity is a powerful means for ending division and conflict.

la prospérité

resource

a source of supply, support, or aid

It opens up the possibility for new resources of human expression.

la ressource

resource development

the processing of resources in order to change them into more usable commodities

Resource development would require improvements in the infrastructure and security in Afghanistan.

le développement des ressources

scarcity

insufficiency or shortness of supply

A scarcity of skilled workers is causing companies to raise wages.

le manque

stakeholder

a person or group that has an investment, share, or interest in something

None of the stakeholders seem to have an objection to it.

la partie intéressée

standard of living

the degree of wealth and material comfort available to a person or community

The real standard of living is higher than the statistics would indicate.

le niveau de vie

sustainability

the quality of not being harmful to the environment or depleting natural resources

Sustainability is something we give a great deal of attention to.

la durabilité

sustainable development

any construction that can be maintained over time without damaging the environment

Sustainable development is something people do for themselves and for their children.

le développement durable

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